B. N. Panda


Research studies in last fifty years in the area of teacher-education suggest that teacher as a professional should answer the following questions:


Attribute Question

Personal integrity, human sensitivity and academic competency etc. are some of the basic qualities/characteristics of an effective teacher. A teacher must be well integrated with these personality qualities.


Knowledge Question

Knowledge question states, what teacher should know or what should be the knowledge base of teacher-education. Knowledge question intends to professionalism teaching and teacher-education by building a common base for profession. Different version of knowledge needed for a teacher are theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, codified knowledge, culturally relevant knowledge etc.


Effectiveness Question

The effectiveness question focuses on these two issues mainly, i.e. what are the teaching strategies and processes used by effective teachers, and what teacher-education processes are most effective in ensuring that prospective teachers learn these strategies. Scientific bases of teaching and empirical evidences about effective teaching strategies both affect deeply in effectiveness question. Now-a-days many anthropological and socio- linguistic theories have been developed for making classroom events meaningful.


Outcome Question

The outcome of teacher-education has become a serious topic for analysis now a day. One should be clearer about the resultant part of teacher-education from outcome question. Outcome question clearly states what should be the benefits of teacher - education programme. What the teacher will do for the self and the society, and why huge amount of money will be spent on teacher-education programme.



The supporters of one year B.Ed. say, the trainee-teachers posses the basic content knowledge before their admission into B.Ed. course and, therefore, after their admission into the B.Ed course, the trainee teachers are given more treatment in pedagogy of teaching/teaching learning .strategies along with a tinge of content tasks. And, for this purpose, one year B. Ed.. is a sufficient / sound time duration for developing pedagogical skills in teaching / developing knowledge on teaching-learning strategies among the trainee-teachers, say the supporters of one year B. Ed. course.


The critics of one-year B.Ed programme claims that the one-year course fails to answer all these above stated questions. The critics of One Year B.Ed. argue that, one year B.Ed is an in-sufficient time duration to provide adequate and stable knowledge in content areas, in pedagogy of teaching and at last in developing a sense of positive attitude towards teaching among the trainee-teachers. The National Commission on Teachers-I (1985) under the Chairmanship of D.P. Chottopadhyaya stated that the existing one year B. Ed. Courses must be made effective both by the lengthening the time available and by revamping the current course and curricula. The Commission also suggested that two summer months may be added to the academic year ensuring a working year of at least 220 days, an increase in the working hours per day, and in some places appointment of additional staff and restructuring of the programme of studies allowing sufficient time for practical works in the school and community.



NCERT is a leading council at the national level, whose main objective is to bring qualitative improvement in school education. Teacher-education is a significant part of this school education programme. Along with many other functions, some of the important functions of NCERT in the area of teacher- education are to prepare the curriculum for teacher education, to revise the teacher-education curriculum in accordance with existing needs, to judge the suitability of some innovative curriculum for teacher education, to judge the suitability and effectiveness of some new teacher-training strategies etc. After a long-term debate and discussion, realizing the insufficiency/ inadequacy of one year B.Ed. programme, NCERT introduced two year B.Ed. course in its four wings from session 1999-2000 in accordance with NCTE guidelines. Since then this course is continuing in these four RIEs keeping in view many hopes and aspirations.


The two-year B.Ed. programme introduced by NCERT in its RIEs has certain special features/characteristics.It provides greater scope for development of sound knowledge on different areas i.e. content knowledge, knowledge on teaching-learning methodologies and knowledge on pedagogy of teaching learning among the trainee-teachers. It develops a sound knowledge base for trainee-teachers in content areas, develops skills of trainee-teachers to be competent enough regarding how to transact the content materials to the students of the schools meaningfully. Some of the value related objectives that two-year B.Ed. intends to develop among the trainee teachers are commitment, competence, accountability, dutifulness etc. of the trainee-teachers towards the profession. It intends to bring integrated development of the trainee-teachers touching both cognitive and non- cognitive aspects of their behaviours.It is primarily practical oriented. It gives stress on practical activities like internal assessment, project works, sessional works, internship in teaching, practice of micro-teaching skills, community works, practical works relating to work experiences innovative ways for conducting practical activities related to health and physical education, work experience, fieldwork with community etc.


The content materials of its programme are transacted to the trainee-teachers through many innovative teaching-learning strategies like problem solving, group discussion, panel discussion, seminar reading, brain storming, practical and project work, discovery method, competency based teaching, contextual transaction of the contents, demonstration-cum-discussion, participatory/activity based group work, case studies, practical exercises, innovations, individual/ group assignment, face to face contact, tutorial / library work, research approach etc. contrasting to the uniform teaching-learning strategy of one year B.Ed. programme. Two year B.Ed. trains the trainee-teachers properly to meet the multifarious problems of the school or classroom. It provides scope for pedagogical analysis of the content/ units included in its syllabus/curriculum. This pedagogical analysis becomes helpful for healthy integration of contents, methods, theories, practical etc. for meaningful transaction.About one month pre-internship in teaching programme (during Part-1 B.Ed. stage), two-month internship in teaching programme (during Part- 11 B.Ed. stage), post-internship meet, twenty days community work programme (10 days in Part-1 & 10 days in Part-11 B.Ed. stage) etc. are some of the special features of this course. Both the pre- internship and internship programme are supplemented by many other innovative activities like practice of micro teaching skills in simulated classroom situation, orientation of teachers of co-operative schools, multi-cultural placement, substantial field experiences, field observation, team teaching, substitute teaching, demonstration of the lessons, observation of the lessons, taught by subject teachers, preparation, use and exhibition of teaching aids, conducting action research/ case study, participation in both curricular and co-curricular activities of the school, application of skills, getting opportunities for reflection and application of their own experiences in the school situation, development of teaching learning materials, observation of school processes, taking the arrangement classes, peer group observation of teaching, analysis of school experiences etc. along with the practice teaching.



The scheme of studies, and the structure and scheme of examination of two year B.Ed. course are mostly same in all the four RIEs located at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswarand Mysore. The format, the scheme of studies, the structure and scheme of examination of two year B.Ed. programme are more or less the same from RIE to RIE.



NCTE (1998) Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education. NCTE, New Delhi.

Panda, B.N. (2001) An In-depth Study of Two Year B.Ed. Programme in regard to Suitability of Course Content and Transactional Strategies with Reference to Objectives, Teacher Competencies and Commitment Areas. RIE, Bhubaneswar.

Regional Institute of Education (1999) Two year B.Ed. Secondary course (Regulation & Scheme of Studies), Utkal University, Bhubaneswar. RIE, Bhubaneswar.

Regional Institute of Education. (1999) Two Year B.Ed. Secondary (Ordinance and Courses of Studies), Barkatullah University, Bhopal. RIE, Bhopal.