Cima M. Yeole                                         

            Raamaa A. Bhoslay



Teacher education has been playing crucial role in the development of quality of teacher training programme. Continuous efforts are being made to improve quality of teacher training to ensure high standard in teacher effectiveness. The efforts for improving quality of teachers are also never ending. The task is important, huge and continuous. As a sequel to NPE 1986, some teacher training institutions have been upgraded. There are 12 CTEs and 2 IASEs and 29 DIETs in Maharastra..




In almost all the universities in Maharashtra admission procedure for B.Ed. is centralized. Government has organized specific admission test, ‘CET’ – Common Eligibility Test and the admissions are decided by the committees appointed by the Government of Maharashtra. Actually students who want to take admission to B.Ed. course must successfully pass CET Examination. Through CET examination the Mental Abilities, General Knowledge and Teaching Aptitude is measured.  Government should provide orientation about ‘CET’. In Maharashtra, 20% seats are allocated as management quota seats, where as remaining


80% seats are filled up  on the basis of merit. At  least 45% marks on the aggregate at Degree for open category and 40% marks for reserved category students are required. The academic session of the colleges starts from second week of June. The student teacher ratio in B.Ed. college is 1:12 at present, The number of teaching staff is 8 Lecturers and 1 Principal. Very often due to delay in admission process, starting of academic session is delayed whereby the course is hurriedly completed. In this situation, it is questionable whether transfer of required teaching skills and attitudes take place. Govt. must make it mandatory for admissions to be completed within stipulated time period.


Duration of  the Programme

Duration of  programme varies from University to University. As per the NCTE norms, working days in case of  Shivaji University is 210 days. This duration is inadequate keeping in view various types of activities suggested for practical work. Time allocation for teaching and for practical work also differs from NCTE norms. The time allocation should be strictly followed so that proper training can be imparted, by not forcing teacher educators complete course work hurriedly.


Student Teacher Method Master Ratio

The number of student teachers to be trained under a method master may vary from 10 to 34. IWhile admitting students, the subject ratio is 40% students from science and mathematics method and 60% students from languages and social sciences. In case of Shivaji University B.Ed. students can not select two methods from language group. There is no freedom of choice for method selection. Similarly there is unequal distribution of work load for method masters.


Theory-Practical Weighatge

As there is variation between the weightage given to theory and practical, the products of B.Ed. courses differ in their skills. In  case of Shivaji University curriculum, 60:40 weightage is given to theory and practical. Actually,  theory part of curriculum is bulky. Some of the portion is out dated. It should be the need of time that policy planners should avoid unnecessary repetitions and outdated concepts and make the curriculum up to date advanced and competitive. The Shivaji University, Kolhapur has been conducting the B.Ed. teacher education course since 1972. Although, B.ed. course  has been revised  a number of  times, some basic irregularities are observed, which need to be taken cognizance of in order that the objectives of the course are fulfilled.



In case of Shivaji University, 5th paper of the B. Ed. course is related to electives. It is a special paper. It includes 10 electives> Contents of  some of the elective subjects are outdated. Some other subjects such as  Education of Children with Special Needs” requires specially trained teacher educators. The theory papers should be need based. Their  continuous updating is necessary. Electives like ‘Yoga Education’ must be added. There is limited freedom or lack of freedom of choice for selection of electives. Colleges provide facility of  teaching only  for 2-3 electives. In some colleges, teaching of electives is done as a compulsory subject that  denies the freedom of choice for electives.


Practice Lesson

In Maharashtra all institutions undertake pre-practice teaching preparation through training in skills under micro teaching. The number of demonstration lessons is generally one per subject. A full lesson is delivered, observed by teacher educators and student teachers and the various aspects of lessons are thoroughly discussed. Demonstration lessons are taken with real school students. But in all colleges they do not distribute demonstration lesson plans, prior to delivery of lesson. If this is done - the quality of critical observation will improve thereby contributing to student- teachers - improvement in their teaching. In all the universities in Maharashtra, the trainees are required to complete the 30-40 lessons in each method. These lessons are divided into Micro-teaching lessons, Stray lessons, and Lessons during Block Teaching, Computerized Lessons, Lessons using Models of teaching and Content-Cum-Methodology Lessons. Under Shivaji University, the trainees are required to complete 12 lessons in each method subject. On the whole, eacjh teacher trainee is required to deliver  24 lessons and 6 micro teaching lessons, and 2 additional annual test lessons. In case of Shibvaji University, there is no provision for observation of classroom teaching of regular school teachers. Only the Method Master is permitted to observe all lessons. NCTE norms need to provide for journey expenses of supervisors at the time of practice teaching. In case of Maharashtra,  there is no such institute which provide journey expenses for supervisors at the time of practice teaching. This becomes a deterrent factor for the whole process. NCTE document has specified Block Practice Teaching of four weeks to enable student teachers to work as intern teachers in concerned schools. In case of Maharashtra,  all the Universities have accepted internship programme for 15 days or two weeks only as a part of practicum. This period of internship programme is insufficient for involvement of  B.Ed. students with  school programmes. NCTE document states that every teacher training institution should preferably have a practicing school attached to it. In case of Maharashtra,  majority of B.Ed. colleges do not have their own practicing schools, and hence have to compromise with the whines and fancies of the local schools.


Lesson Plan

In case of Maharashtra, there are variation in lesson plan formats and steps in lesson planning. In case of Shivaji University there is uniformity in all B.Ed. Colleges in lesson plan formats. However there is a need of innovation in lesson planning, depending on the content and strategy to be used.



The NCTE document suggests laboratories. The charge of these laboratories is to be with specially recruited technicians, but in most of the Teacher Training Colleges in Maharashtra this type of ideal infrastructure is not available. One hall is used for multi purpose work with no recruitment of special technicians. Some lecturers themselves carry out the extra work of a technician.


Paucity of Resources

Most of the teacher training colleges in Maharashtra especially affiliated to Shivaji University suffer from paucity of resources. Majority of the training colleges are located in rural areas and do not have adequate resources. Such colleges are unable to provide healthy practices for their trainees.


Organisation of  Practical Work

The syllabus of Shivaji University includes all practical work that NCTE prescribes, which makes the syllabi unnecessarily bulky. Along with NCTE’s prescribed practical, there are provision for field work with community, S.U.P.W., Physical Education and Personality Development programme. There is no separate provision for organisation and qualitative evaluation of above said types of  practical work. There is no provision for appointment of separate physical education instructor or Art teacher to guide f such practical work. Even some practical  work like Models of Teaching,CCM are arranged only for the sake of knowledge and they are not internally evaluated.


School Teaching Experience of Method Masters

School teaching experience of teacher educators of the method masters should be a issue for debate. Teacher educators do not have any school teaching experience. NCTE needs to consider at least teaching of one unit of a subject as a part of work load. In case of Shivaji University also, only one demonstration lesson is given by each method master. This is insufficient.




In case of Maharastra, elementary teacher training course is known as Diploma in education course. There are 20 Govt. D. Ed. colleges, 89 aided D. Ed. colleges and 29 DIETs engaged in pre-service teacher training for elementary teachers, where approximately. 45,000-47,000 trainee teachers are taking training.



Admission procedure for D. Ed. is centralised. Admissions are made on the basis of marks obtained at 12th std. (higher secondary board exam.) annual board exam. In Maharashtra govt. is not taken any entrance test for D. Ed. admission. There are eight regional level centres for centralized admissions for D.Ed. course.  20% seats are allocated as management quota seats for non-aided D.Ed. colleges only. Where as, 80% seats are allocated on the basis of merit. In aided colleges, Govt. colleges and in DIETs 100 % seats are allocated on the basis of merit. 40% seats allocated to arts faculty students, 10% seats allocated to commerce students and 50% seats allocated to science faculty students. Admission process starts after the declaration of results of 12th std. board exam. The academic session of the D. Ed. college starts from October. Admission process completed before the academic session. This process continues for four months.


Details of fees

The Govt. prescribed fees for D. Ed. course is Rs. 2,025/- per year in DIETs, Aided colleges and Govt. colleges. But for Non-aided colleges the prescribed fee for course is Rs. 12,000/- per year. This fee structure is followed in all over Maharashtra. However, non-aided institutions illegally charge extra fees from the 20% students admitted through management quota, the rate of which vary from college to college.


Structure of the Course

District Institute of Educations have been established by MHRD with a view to accelerating the quality of primary education. These DIETs have been functioning in Maharashtra since 1989. The staff pattern includes: Principal - 1, Senior Lecturers - 4, Lecturers  - 6, Superintendent - 1, Librarian - 1, Lab assistant - 1, Steno - 1, Junior clerk - 4, Auditor - 1, Technicians - 2, and  Peons -3. Actually this staff is not sufficient, as considering the nature of work. Senior teachers must teach 10 hrs per week while junior teachers must teach 12 hrs. per week. Each one must work 38 hrs. per week. Additionally they complete their administrative duties provided by the institute.


Teaching Practice

This is the most important part of the course and needs careful planning and organization. Trainees are required to teach a particular class only after they have (a) observed demonstration lessons, (b) participated in micro-teaching workshops and acquired mastery on teaching skills, and (c) acquired some grasp on the syllabus and teaching materials prescribed for that class. For teaching practice, 4 lessons are prescribed for each method. Every trainee is required to observe 10 periods of peer trainees in each subject. The trainee is also expected to teach minimum of two lessons during internship. There is one final lesson in each subject, assessed by the external board constituted for this purpose. 44 lessons must be completed within two years-1st year 14 and 2ndyear 30. Teacher Educator delivers only one demonstration lesson of a concerned subject and one micro-teaching demo-lesson. This  is insufficient for effective transaction of teaching skills. Hence,  teacher educators should deliver minimum five demonstration lessons and thoroughly discuss them  with trainee teachers.


Routine of the D. Ed. Colleges

The routine of D. Ed. colleges is normally from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m..  The assembly programme from 11 to 11.30 a.m. requires the presence of all staff members. The events of the  morning assembly  includes up-keeping the campus, National anthem, Pledge, Sanskrit shloka and its interpretation, Prayer, News Reporting, Highlights of daily news, Narration of reminiscence of great personalities, Parables, Scientific world, Good thought, Choir, Meditation, and Criticism of assembly session by students and teacher.The teaching periods are of 45 minutes duration with 5 periods per day. As per the NCTE norms working days for D. Ed. course is 240 days per year.


Course Content

Total Marks for the Course is 2000 out of which Theory Marks 1040 and Practical Marks 960. There are 36 weeks per year out of which 32 weeks for learning teaching and internal evaluation, 2 weeks for social service and school experience and 2 weeks for examinations and competitions.  During first year, the  weekly  periods for each paper are: 1.Indian Society and Primary Education (4periods), 2.Psychology of Learning and Teaching (5 periods), 3.Educational Evaluation(3 periods), ,4.Educational Management (3 periods); 5.School subjects-content cum methodology: First/ Regional language (4 periods), Second language ( 4 periods),

Mathematics (4 periods),Work education (4 periods),Physical Education (3 periods).

During Second Year: Total weeks 32

Primary education- present status, problems and remedies/ measures

Information Communication Technology

Action Research and Innovations

School subjects: Content cum Methodology: Third Language (5 periods),Science and Technology ( 5 periods), Environment/ Social study ( 5 periods) and Health-Individual/ school (2 periods).

Practical Work during First Year, Practice Lessons( 8 periods), Social service, Arts(2 periods),Music (1 period) and during Second Year, Arts(2 periods), Music (2 periods), Physical Education(3 periods), Practice Lessons (8 periods).



Comprehensive colleges of education having both elementary and secondary teacher education programmes may be set up. Only well designed and need-based in-service education programmes may be offered by DIET and  SCERT and NCERT as well as by universities including open universities mainly through distance education. Each course should have a final examination and those passing be given certificates. Each course should have a course-fee to be paid by the participant. These courses may be considered essential for some specific jobs and for promotion in service. Research in teacher education institutions may be encouraged by providing research grants for approved projects.