INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING IN
Cima M. Yeole
Raamaa A. Bhoslay
Teacher education has been playing crucial role in the development of quality of teacher training programme. Continuous efforts are being made to improve quality of teacher training to ensure high standard in teacher effectiveness. The efforts for improving quality of teachers are also never ending. The task is important, huge and continuous. As a sequel to NPE 1986, some teacher training institutions have been upgraded. There are 12 CTEs and 2 IASEs and 29 DIETs in Maharastra..
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN MAHARASHTRA: THE CASE OF
almost all the universities in
80% seats are filled up on the basis of merit. At least 45% marks on the aggregate at Degree for open category and 40% marks for reserved category students are required. The academic session of the colleges starts from second week of June. The student teacher ratio in B.Ed. college is 1:12 at present, The number of teaching staff is 8 Lecturers and 1 Principal. Very often due to delay in admission process, starting of academic session is delayed whereby the course is hurriedly completed. In this situation, it is questionable whether transfer of required teaching skills and attitudes take place. Govt. must make it mandatory for admissions to be completed within stipulated time period.
Duration of the Programme
varies from University to University. As per the NCTE norms, working days in
Student Teacher Method Master Ratio
The number of student teachers to be trained under a method master may vary from 10 to 34. IWhile admitting students, the subject ratio is 40% students from science and mathematics method and 60% students from languages and social sciences. In case of Shivaji University B.Ed. students can not select two methods from language group. There is no freedom of choice for method selection. Similarly there is unequal distribution of work load for method masters.
there is variation between the weightage given to
theory and practical, the products of B.Ed. courses differ in their skills. In case of
NCTE document suggests laboratories. The charge of these laboratories is to be
with specially recruited technicians, but in most of the Teacher Training
Paucity of Resources
of the teacher training colleges in Maharashtra
especially affiliated to
Organisation of Practical Work
School Teaching Experience of Method Masters
teaching experience of teacher educators of the method masters should be a issue for debate. Teacher educators do not have any school
teaching experience. NCTE needs to consider at least teaching of one unit of a
subject as a part of work load. In case of
In case of Maharastra, elementary teacher training course is known as Diploma in education course. There are 20 Govt. D. Ed. colleges, 89 aided D. Ed. colleges and 29 DIETs engaged in pre-service teacher training for elementary teachers, where approximately. 45,000-47,000 trainee teachers are taking training.
procedure for D. Ed. is centralised. Admissions are
made on the basis of marks obtained at 12th std. (higher secondary board
exam.) annual board exam. In
Details of fees
Govt. prescribed fees for D. Ed. course is Rs. 2,025/- per year in DIETs, Aided colleges and Govt. colleges. But for Non-aided
colleges the prescribed fee for course is Rs. 12,000/- per year. This fee
structure is followed in all over
Structure of the Course
Institute of Educations have been established by MHRD
with a view to accelerating the quality of primary education. These DIETs have been functioning in
This is the most important part of the course and needs careful planning and organization. Trainees are required to teach a particular class only after they have (a) observed demonstration lessons, (b) participated in micro-teaching workshops and acquired mastery on teaching skills, and (c) acquired some grasp on the syllabus and teaching materials prescribed for that class. For teaching practice, 4 lessons are prescribed for each method. Every trainee is required to observe 10 periods of peer trainees in each subject. The trainee is also expected to teach minimum of two lessons during internship. There is one final lesson in each subject, assessed by the external board constituted for this purpose. 44 lessons must be completed within two years-1st year 14 and 2ndyear 30. Teacher Educator delivers only one demonstration lesson of a concerned subject and one micro-teaching demo-lesson. This is insufficient for effective transaction of teaching skills. Hence, teacher educators should deliver minimum five demonstration lessons and thoroughly discuss them with trainee teachers.
Routine of the D. Ed. Colleges
The routine of D. Ed. colleges is normally from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.. The assembly programme from 11 to 11.30 a.m. requires the presence of all staff members. The events of the morning assembly includes up-keeping the campus, National anthem, Pledge, Sanskrit shloka and its interpretation, Prayer, News Reporting, Highlights of daily news, Narration of reminiscence of great personalities, Parables, Scientific world, Good thought, Choir, Meditation, and Criticism of assembly session by students and teacher.The teaching periods are of 45 minutes duration with 5 periods per day. As per the NCTE norms working days for D. Ed. course is 240 days per year.
Total Marks for the Course is 2000 out of which Theory Marks 1040 and Practical Marks 960. There are 36 weeks per year out of which 32 weeks for learning teaching and internal evaluation, 2 weeks for social service and school experience and 2 weeks for examinations and competitions. During first year, the weekly periods for each paper are: 1.Indian Society and Primary Education (4periods), 2.Psychology of Learning and Teaching (5 periods), 3.Educational Evaluation(3 periods), ,4.Educational Management (3 periods); 5.School subjects-content cum methodology: First/ Regional language (4 periods), Second language ( 4 periods),
Mathematics (4 periods),Work education (4 periods),Physical Education (3 periods).
During Second Year: Total weeks 32
Primary education- present status, problems and remedies/ measures
Information Communication Technology
Action Research and Innovations
School subjects: Content cum Methodology: Third Language (5 periods),Science and Technology ( 5 periods), Environment/ Social study ( 5 periods) and Health-Individual/ school (2 periods).
Practical Work during First Year, Practice Lessons( 8 periods), Social service, Arts(2 periods),Music (1 period) and during Second Year, Arts(2 periods), Music (2 periods), Physical Education(3 periods), Practice Lessons (8 periods).
Comprehensive colleges of education having both elementary and secondary teacher education programmes may be set up. Only well designed and need-based in-service education programmes may be offered by DIET and SCERT and NCERT as well as by universities including open universities mainly through distance education. Each course should have a final examination and those passing be given certificates. Each course should have a course-fee to be paid by the participant. These courses may be considered essential for some specific jobs and for promotion in service. Research in teacher education institutions may be encouraged by providing research grants for approved projects.