DO TEACHERS HAVE RELATIONSHIP WITH AWARENESS OF AND ADHERENCE TO VALUES INHERENT IN FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES?

 

Kalplata Pandey

INTRODUCTION

We know  that man-value-education is a sacred triangle, where education is a vital medium to imbibe, foster and perpetuate values in man. While teaching of facts (sciences) makes man wise, the teaching of values makes him truly human. ‘Value’ comes from the Latin word ‘valere’ which means to be worth, to be strong. Values are an individual’s blue print for the way that they perceive the world and to that extent people have different sets of core values. For example, a person that views world as a hostile environment will place great emphasis on the values of security and stability, while another person who views the world as a creative environment will have values of integration and interconnectedness. Now the question arises here that what are the essential elements which help in leading value based living. The first and foremost word comes in this regard is Dharma, the duty boundness, which helps an individual to adhere values in himself/herself. The importance of Dharma or duty is very well recognised and established in the writings of Mahatma Gandhi. He said that  he learned from his illiterate but wise mother that all rights to be deserved and preserved come from duty done.

 

NEED OF THE STUDY

It is generally believed that teachers are the nation builders. Teachers are supposed to play “a pivotal role in the value adherence among their students. It is believed that only teacher can make tremendous positive changes among his students. This belief still persists with minor changes in the society. It is also said that the teachers teaching in private schools are performing their duties in a better manner as compared to the teachers teaching in Aided or purely government schools. Along with this, researches also prove that there exists sex wise difference between the teachers as far as their values preferences are concerned. Findings of various researches are supporting the assumption that sex and level of teaching affects the value preferences among teachers. Therefore in order to know whether teachers of different sex and teaching at different levels of education have relationship between their awareness of and adherence to values inherent in Fundamental Duties enshrined in Indian constitution, the present study is planned.

 

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the study were:

To find out the relationship between awareness of and adherence to values inherent in Fundamental Duties among male and female teachers teaching in primary and secondary school teachers;

To find out the relationship between awareness of and adherence to values inherent in Fundamental Duties among the teachers teaching in primary and secondary schools run by various educational agencies.

 

METHODOLOGY

The present study belonged to the category of descriptive field research and included composite characteristics of co-relational survey researches. The sample  comprised 900 teachers of both sexes (450 male & 450 female) teaching in Govt. aided and recognised primary and secondary schools located in urban and rural areas of Varanasi and tribal areas of Sonebhadra District. Stratified random sampling technique was used to collect data from 105 Govt. aided and recognized primary and secondary schools situated in 5 wards and 4 blocks of Varanasi and 4 blocks of Sonebhadra District. Following tools were used: 

(i) Fundamental Duties Awareness Questionnaires for Teachers (FDAQT). constructed by the  investigator;

(ii) Values inherent in Fundamental duties questionnaire for teachers (VFDQT) prepared by the investigator.

 

FINDINGS

Relationship between Awareness of and Adherence to Values among Male and Female Primary Schools Teachers

It was found that there exists significant positive relationship between awareness of and adherence to values inherent in the Fundamental Duties among primary male teachers. For primary male teachers, patriotic, social, cultural, spiritual, knowledge and excellence values strengthen with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. Contrary to this, for environmental and law abiding values no such significant relationship was observed. For female primary school teachers, it was observed that adherence to values inherent in the Fundamental Duties strengthens with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. Contrary to this, no such significant relationship was observed for social, spiritual, knowledge and value for excellence. Findings revealed that for male primary teachers, adherence to patriotic, social, cultural, spiritual, knowledge and excellence values increases with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. For female primary teachers, adherence to patriotic, cultural, environmental and law abiding value strengthens with increase in awareness of Fundamentals Duties. The reason behind this relationship lies in the fact that without having awareness, the evaluation of anything is not possible. Similarly without having awareness of Fundamental Duties, adherence to values related to the same can not be made possible. Male and female primary teachers having different educational qualification may need to be aware of Fundamental Duties first in order to adhere to the values related to the same. This might be the reason of having positive relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties and adherence to various values related to those duties. Adherence to these values strengthen with increase in the awareness of Fundamental Duties among male secondary school teachers. Contrary to this, no such significant relationship was observed for patriotic, environmental and law abiding values. For female secondary school teachers, it was observed that social, cultural, spiritual and value for excellence strengthen with increase in the awareness of Fundamental Duties. Contrary to this, no such significant relationship was observed for patriotic, knowledge, environmental and law abiding values. Findings revealed that for male secondary school teachers, social, cultural, spiritual, knowledge and excellence value increases & with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties whereas for female secondary teachers, social, cultural, spiritual and excellence values increases with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. For remaining values, no such significant relationship was observed. The probable reason of having positive and significant relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties and adherence to social, cultural spiritual and excellence values on the part of male and female secondary school teachers may be that all these values are directly related to the awareness of Fundamental Duties. Therefore, for formal adherence a teacher has to become aware of what constitution directs about the same. This might be the reason of their having positive and significant relationship. As far as the knowledge value is concerned, it can be said that adherence to knowledge as value has not to do anything with awareness of Fundamental Duties. Valuing knowledge is highly essential for a teacher who is teaching adolescents of this modern age of information technology. This might be the cause of low relationship between adherence to knowledge value and awareness of duties related to same. Similarly, for law abiding and environmental values also no such significant relationship was observed. The reason for this finding may again be same, as being a teacher of secondary schools, they have to inculcate these values in their students. As we all know that now a days people specially residing in urban areas are facing lots of health and other related problems due to not having proper awareness of the protection of environment. This might be the cause of their not relating values with the awareness of Fundamental Duties. Similar reason persists with the law abiding value also. It is an undeniable truth that due to urbanization and encroachment of technology in public sector, the unemployment rate has increased a lot. The greed of becoming rich within a forth night has worsened the law and order situation in the cities. Therefore, teachers, the most awakened citizens of the country, may not feel necessary to have awareness of Fundamental Duties first for inculcation of value related to abiding by the law. This might be the reason for not having significant relationship between the two variables among male and female, secondary school teachers.

 

Relationship between Awareness of Fundamental Duties and Adherence to Values Inherent in the Fundamental Duties among Primary School Teachers

The second objective of the study was to find out the relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties and adherence to values inherent in the Fundamental Duties among primary school teachers teaching in schools run by various educational agencies. It was found  that there exists significant positive relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties and adherence to values inherent in Fundamental Duties as far as primary school teachers teaching in Government, aided and recognized schools are concerned.  Adherence to values inherent in the Fundamental Duties strengthen with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. For primary school teachers teaching in aided schools, it was observed that there exists significant and positive relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties and inculcation of values inherent in Fundamental Duties. Contrary to this, for environmental and law abiding values, no such significant relationship was observed. For primary school teachers teaching in private schools, except for cultural & environmental values no significant relationship was observed between awareness of Fundamental Duties and adherence to values inherent in the same. Findings revealed that for primary school teachers teaching in Govt. schools, adherence to all the eight values strengthens with increase in the awareness of Fundamental Duties. For primary school teachers teaching in aided schools, adherence to patriotic, social, cultural, spiritual, knowledge and excellence value increases with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. The reason behind the variation of relationship between primary school teachers teaching in Govt. and aided school regarding awareness of Fundamental duties and adherence to values related to the same may be that aided schools teachers may not feel necessary to be aware of law abiding and environmental value as Govt. school teachers have to work under fixed norms, rules and regulation, forced upon them by Govt. This situation is not generally faced by aided school teachers. This might be the reason of their having low relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties related to environment and law and the adherence to the same.

 

Relationship between Awareness of and Adherence to Values among Secondary School Teachers

The second objective of the study was to study the relationship between awareness of and adherence to values inherent in the Fundamental Duties among secondary school teachers teaching in schools run by various educational agencies. It was found  that as far as secondary school teachers teaching in Govt. schools are concerned, there exists significant relationship between awareness of Fundamental Duties and adherence to cultural, spiritual, knowledge, environmental value and value for excellence. It means that adherence to cultural, spiritual, knowledge, environmental and excellence values strengthen with increase in awareness towards Fundamental Duties. Contrary to this no such significant relationship was observed for patriotic, social and law abiding values. It is observed that adherence to social, cultural and value for excellence  strengthen with increased in the awareness of Fundamental Duties among secondary school teachers teaching in aided schools as the obtained ‘r’ value for all these values are significant and positive. Contrary to this, no such significant relationship was observed for patriotic and environmental values. Findings revealed that for secondary teachers teaching in Govt. schools, cultural, spiritual, knowledge, environmental and excellence values increases with increase in their awareness of Fundamental Duties. It was observed that for secondary teachers teaching in aided schools, adherence to social, cultural and excellence value increases with increase in awareness of the same. It was also observed that for secondary teachers teaching in recognized schools, social, cultural, spiritual, knowledge, law abiding and excellence value increases with increase in awareness of Fundamental Duties. It indicates that for all teachers teaching in schools run by various educational agencies, adherence to cultural and excellence values increases with increase in their awareness of Fundamental Duties. The probable reason for this relationship may be that due to over increasing population and negative effect of westernization, people are not thinking seriously about protection and preservation of their cultural heritage. Similarly due to the rat race for survival of fittest, the concept of quality based development is vanishing from the present social context. Therefore, in order to attract the people of this very fundamental and important issue, it is highly essential to make the people aware of the Fundamental Duties. This might be the reason for having positive and significant relationship between these two values and awareness of the same. The probable reason of having low relationship between social, law abiding and patriotic values and awareness of Fundamental Duties may be that for the adherence to these values awareness of Fundamental Duties is not essential as teachers have to be already aware of all these duties for dealing with the students, parents and society daily. it is very well accepted fact that teachers are the makers of future citizens and they shape the future of the nation in their classrooms. Therefore they may not feel necessary to be aware of Fundamental Duties to become dutiful in their classrooms. Contrary to this, teachers teaching in private schools have positive and significant relationship between social, cultural, spiritual, knowledge, law abiding, excellence values and awareness of Fundamental Duties. The probable reason for this relationship is that private teachers have to be extra cautious in dealing with the students due to their nature of job. They might feel necessary that awareness of the Fundamental Duties is essential for inculcation of these values of common use. For environmental and patriotic values they may not feel like the same as these are the values which have to be adhered by teachers without having any doubts or special awareness as it is the prime duty of teachers to make their students a patriotic citizen who have the capacity and will to protect their nation and make environment pollution free and hand it over to their successors. This might be the reason of having low relationship between these two values and awareness of Fundamental Duties on the part of teachers teaching in recognized schools. Finding, that there exists significant positive relationship between awareness of and adherence to values inherent in Fundamental Duties has proved the importance and urgency of making people specially teacher community, aware about Fundamental Duties, definitely helps in the adherence of the values related to same. This finding strongly advocates that Fundamental Duties must be included in the syllabus of teacher training courses.