EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF STUDENT TEACHERS (PRE-SERVICE) AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN PUDUCHERRY REGION

Singaravelu  S.

 

 

Introduction

Emotions are personal experiences that arise from complex interplay among physiological, cognitive and situational variables. Emotions if properly used are an essential tool for successful and fulfilling life. But if emotions are out of control, it can result in disaster. In day-to-day life, they affect our relations with other people, our self-identity and our ability to complete a task. Emotional process is not an isolated phenomenon but component of general experience, constantly influencing and influenced by other processes going on at the same time. Emotions are personal experiences that arise from complex interplay among physiological, cognitive and situational variables.To be effective, the cognitive processes must be in control of the emotions, so that they work for rather than against .  Here comes the importance of emotional intelligence.  The famous psychologist E.L. Thorndike, through his concept of social intelligence, laid down a solid foundation of the essence of emotional intelligence in 1920.  He used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. Gardner  introduced the idea of multiple intelligences, which included both interpersonal  intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence. Sternberg  referred to  the concept of social intelligence in the name of contextual intelligence through his triarchic theory of intelligence. This component of one’s intelligence (other components being componential and experimental) relates with one’s capacity of making adjustment to various contexts with a proper selection of contexts so that one can improve one’s environment in a proper way. The term emotional intelligence appears to have originated with Charles Darwin in 1872, who theorized about a broader emotional social intelligence necessary for human survival and adaptation.   In modern times, the term EI was popularized by Goleman. 

Emotional intelligence refers to the capacity for recognising our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for motivating emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. It is the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotions, generate feelings that facilitate thoughts and an ability to regulate emotions to promote growth. It is also defined as an array of non-cognitive capabilities competencies and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressure. According to Goleman, emotional intelligence has  five  elements: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills.

 

 

Rationale of the study

McDowelle and Bell (1997) found that lack of emotional intelligence  skills lowered team effectiveness and created dysfunctional team interactions and most effective performers  lost the best networking skills. Tapia  and Marsh (2001) found an overall significant main effect of gender and two-way interaction of gender - GPA on emotional intelligence.  Annaraja and Jose (2005)  found that rural and urbn B.Ed., trainees did not differ in their self-awarenes, self-control, social skills and emotional intelligence. Devi and Uma (2005) found that the parental education, occupation had significant and positive relationship with dimensions of emotional intelligence like social regard, social responsibility, impulse control and optimism.  Harrod and  Scheer (2005) found that emotional intelligence levels were positively related to females, parents’ education and household income. Amirtha and Kadhiravan (2006) found that gender, age and qualification influenced the emotional intelligence of school teachers.  The main aim of education is the all round holistic development of the students. In the pursuit of this goal, teachers play a significant role. Emotionally Intelligent teachers help students with improved motivation, enhanced innovation, increased performance, effective use of time and resources, improved leadership qualities and improved team work. Hence, it is essential to develop the emotional intelligence of student teachers during pre-service. The  present study aims at studying the level of emotional intelligence of the student teachers at primary level in Puducherry region.

 

Objectives

1. To find out the level of emotional intelligence Of student teachers (pre-service) at primary Level.

2. To study the differences in the level of Emotional intelligence between the groups Regarding sex, locality and marital status.

 

Hypotheses

1. Emotional  intelligence of  student teachers (pre-service) is high.

2. There is  no significant difference between The means scores  of  emotional  intelligence regarding sex, locality and marital status.

 

METHOD

Sample

The sample for the study consisted of 220 student teachers selected randomly from the Union Territory of Puducherry.

 

Tool

Scale of emotional intelligence, developed and standardised by Balasubramanium (2003) was used that consisted of 50 objective type questions of multiple choice type.

 

Procedure

Scale of emotional intelligence was administered to the student teachers after obtaining prior permission from the principals of teacher training institutes in the Union Territory of Puducherry. The data collected were analysed with the help of suitable statistical techniques.

 

Results and Discussion

Emotional intelligence of student teachers in Puducherry region was above average as the mean and standard deviation were found to be 33.46 and 9.46, respectively. It was observed that 68% of the student teachers had above average level of emotional intelligence. No significant difference was observed in emotional intelligence between men and women student teachers as the calculated‘t’ value 0.86 was not significant at both levels of significance. Therefore, null hypothesis  formulated for this purpose was accepted. Hence, men and women student teachers have same level of emotional intelligence. Significant difference was observed in emotional intelligence between the groups regarding locality of the residence of student teachers as the calculated ‘t’ value 3.42 was found to be significant at both levels of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis formulated for this purpose was rejected. Hence, locality of residence has a significant effect on emotional intelligence of student teachers. Significant difference was observed in emotional intelligence between the groups regarding marital status,  as the calculated ‘t’ value 2.88 was found to be significant at both levels of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis formulated for this purpose was rejected. Hence, marital status has a significant effect on emotional intelligence of student teachers.

 

Conclusion

It is concluded from the findings that the emotional intelligence of student teachers (pre-service) at primary level in Puducherry is high. There is  necessity to develop the emotional competencies of the student teachers, which in turn helps them to develop the same among their students. Inspirational subjects like art, literature, poetry and music help in developing an appreciation of the beautiful and sublime emotions in life. They should be included in the teacher education curriculum. Religious beliefs and an abiding faith in God help in tolerance and stability of emotions. There should be no suppression of emotions. They should be sublimated through constructive activities.  Sports, games, dramatics, and other  co-curricular activities are of great value. Skill, confidence and involvement in work as well as a healthy sense of humour are basic to emotional intelligence. Therefore, work ethics and balanced work and healthy living must be stressed in the curriculum. Emotions should be concentrated or directed towards some good object or healthy idea. Such a direction and concentration can lead to development like justice, patriotism and other moral qualities. Strategic competency in teaching can be developed in teachers by means of emotional intelligence. The concept of emotional intelligence may be incorporated in the teacher education curriculum to revitalize teacher education programme.

 

References

Amirtha, M. and Kadheravan, S. (2006) Influence of personality on the emotional intelligence of teachers. Edu Tracks 5, 12, 25-29.

Annaraja, P. and Jose, S. (2005) Emotional intelligence of B. Ed. trainees. Research and Reflections in Education 2, 8-16.

Culver, D. (1998) A Review of Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman: Implications for Technical Education. Retrieved from http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie98/papers/1105.pdef

Devi, U.L. and Uma, M. (2005) Relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence of adolescents and certain personal social variables. Indian Psychological Review 64, 01, 11-20.

Dhull, I. and Mangal, S. (2005) Emotional intelligence its significance for school teachers. Edu Tracks 4, 11, 14-16.

Tapia, M. and Marsh, G. (2001) Emotional Intelligence: The Effect of Gender, GPA and Ethnicity. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association,Mexico. ( ED 464086)