C. Girija Navaneedhan

K. Saraladevi





Learner-centered education places the student at the center of education. It begins with understanding the educational contexts from which a student comes. It continues with the instructor evaluating the student’s progress towards learning objectives. By helping the student acquire the basic skills to learn, it ultimately provides a basis for learning throughout life. It therefore, places the responsibility for learning on the student, while the instructor assumes role of facilitator. This approach strives to be individualistic, flexible, competency-based, varied in methodology and not always constrained by time or place.


Education can be made learner focused  through Neuro Linguistic Programming. The name Neuro Linguistic Programming is explained as follows: The term ‘Neuro’ has originated from the fundamental idea that all behavioural outcomes are from neurological processes through which one  experiences and processes information using senses (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, olfactory, gustatory). Linguistic refers to use of language - verbal and non-verbal, to express  feelings and thoughts. Programming refers to the ability to organise ideas and actions to achieve specific goals and results. A regular practice of Neuro Linguistic Programming,  being learner centered,  enhances the academic performance of the students.



1. To establish the fact that metaphorical thinking increases the intelligence level of the students;

2. To find out the dependence of emotional intelligence of the students on metaphorical thinking;

3. To identify the impact of metaphorical thinking on confidence level of the students;

4. To find out the correlation between intelligence and emotional intelligence of the students;

5. To find out the correlation between intelligence and confidence level of the students;

6. To find out the correlation between emotional intelligence and confidence level of the students.



1. There are significant differences in the “t” values of pre  post achievement tests administering metaphorical thinking as a learning tool;

2. There are significant differences in intelligence scores for  pre and post tests by applying metaphorical thinking;

3. There are no significant differences in the scores of emotional intelligence for pre and post achievement tests;

4. There are significant differences in the scores of confidence level for pre and post achievement tests by the application of metaphorical thinking;

5. There is no relationship between intelligence and emotional intelligence amongst the students after the application of metaphorical thinking.




In the present study, a sample of 100 students, (boys and girls) in the age group 16 – 17 years was selected.



Intelligence was measured with the help of Cattell & Cattell intelligence tests. The other tools were manual for emotional intelligence and confidence level questionnaires.



The sample population was exposed to metaphorical thinking as learning tool in the academic learning of Chemistry.  Pre and post achievement tests were conducted before and after implementing the technique. The test scores were subjected to statistical analysis. The achievement scores were further supported by the application of psychological tools such as Intelligence Questionnaire, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and Confidence level questionnaire.



As the “t” value was found to be greater than the table value,  the metaphorical thinking has a positive impact on the academic performance. The level of significance was 99.9% ( P <0.01), proving the validity of  hypothesis 1. Intelligence is defined as a property of mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and to learn. Application of metaphorical thinking helps to develop various skills related to intelligence of an individual, which is evident from the “t” test value. From the statistical calculation, it was found  that if a person was intelligent, he / she  was equally confident in all his/her  endeavours. Therefore, intelligence and confidence are directly related psychological characters of an individual. The statistical calculation supported the fact that the intelligence level of the students increased by administering metaphorical thinking. The confidence level of the students in the post test was greater, showing vital evidence in favour of utility value of metaphorical thinking. There was a positive correlation between intelligence and confidence level of the students.



Metaphors can be used to improve communications: They can add impact or can help  explain a difficult concept by association with a more familiar one. They are powerful short-cut to instant and memorable understanding and evoke vivid images and allow one to “see” things from a new perspective. Hence, they are useful tools for creative problem solving.