Sunita Joshi




The quality of education depends, in a large measure, upon the quality of teacher, selection of appropriate teaching method for specific content. In social science subject, the pupil is required to learn a number of concepts, phenomenon, generalization procedures, functions and reasons for certain occurrences. He/she is to learn about their attribute, constituent elements, relationships and applications. Social science is collection of the above information. It is divided into four major areas namely History, Geography, Economics and Civics. All these subjects are comprehensive, broad and detailed.  Change in attitude towards educational psychology has unfolded the importance of the concepts. Learning of concept enables the student to get the knowledge of differentiation and similarity in stimulus. This in turn helps in understanding the environment. Concept helps in understanding the worldly things easily by categorizing. e.g. Mango can be remembered well by categorizing it as a fruit. Concept reduces the cramming habit in permanent learning. A child when learns the qualities of a domestic animal,does not need to be taught again. Examples are used to clarify the concept. As a brick is required in making a house, different levels of concepts are needed for construction of knowledge. The investigator felt that same strategy has to be included in social science teaching. She  developed one handbook to understand analyzing concepts, definition of concept, attribute of concept, related to social science on the basis of Concept Attainment Model (Bruner). The handbook was expected to strengthen the quality, norms of social  science. In future, the handbook will make the student aware of the correct and meaningful concepts and elaborate the depth of subject conveniently.  The social science subject is collection of different important informations about  society and community. There are many difficult concepts to understand for knowing their basic knowledge and they are interrelated concepts. Hence, for a social science teacher, it is very difficult to understand all the concepts related to History, Geography, Economics and Civics. Thus, handbook provides the fundamental for analyzing concepts, definition of concepts and attributes of concepts related to social science on the basis of Concept Attainment Model (Bruner). Therefore, the investigator felt that the present study might help to strengthen the quality norms of social science. The developed handbook of concepts will be very useful to social science teachers. In future, this handbook may  help to become aware of the correct and meaningful concepts and to elaborate the depth of subject conveniently.



1. To develop a handbook of concepts based on social science subject for secondary level students.

2. To know the reactions towards handbook of concepts based on social science subject.


All the concepts are based on the text book recommended by NCERT. The examples of the concepts were based on the understanding level of students. The handbook was be developed in Hindi language.




The investigator used different phases for developing handbook of concepts as well as for assessing  the hand book of concepts. There were 15 subject experts selected for testing and analyzing handbook for improvement. These teachers had minimum two years teaching experiences. There were 5 teacher educators selected for evaluating and analyzing the handbook for improvement. These educators had technical knowledge of Concept Attainment Model (Bruner) because, these concepts were prepared on the line of CAM. 15 teacher-trainees were selected for testing handbook. These teacher-trainees were teaching the same. To know the effectiveness of hand book of concepts based on social science subjects,  30 students of secondary level were selected. The selection criterion was same socio-economic status.



Concept Attainment Achievement Test (CAAT) was developed by the investigator. This test comprised of two parts. One part had multiple-choice questions and the other part  had true and false questions. This test evaluated the achievement of students according to their understanding of concepts in the handbook.  Reaction scale was developed by the investigator. In this scale, different aspects of hand book like simple language, standard of selection of concepts  and  different examples used to understand selected concepts, way of presentation of examples,  and writing the definition of concepts.


Data Collection

The main objective of the present study was to develop a handbook of concepts based on social science concepts. Hence the main emphasis of the investigator was developing carefully the handbook. Investigator opted for different phases for developing the handbook. First phase was analyzed and assessed by the subject teacher. The second phase was analyzed and assessed by teacher educator. The third phase was assessed by teacher-trainees. The Fourth phase was administered to the students of secondary level. After collecting the data, the investigator analyzed the data according to percentile and chi-square.



The handbook provided facilities for easy understanding of the attributes and identification of concepts with the help of given examples. Thus the students will take interest in the social science subject. Students showed interest in knowing the different attributes, definitions and name of the concepts. The teacher trainees and students tend to concentrate on and analyze one concept with the another concepts. The handbook is the best guide for developing interest among the social science teachers. The handbook provided freedom to take their own time to understand the concepts. While reading the handbook, students were very active. With the help of the handbook, the students analyzed concepts according to essential and non-essential attributes, because all the samples agreed that the handbook might develop critical thinking among the students. While using the handbook, the mental activities of the students increased. According to the subject teacher and the  teacher educator the handbook will develop confidence in the students. While using the handbook, the students will be able to express their own thought in words. They will understand clear-cut difference among the concepts with the help of criterion attributes. The way of presentation of examples of concepts was appropriate to learn concepts and the students will retain the concepts for long time.



On the basis of results derived from the reaction scale, the handbook for the middle level students, for the concepts of social science was designed in a simple and a systematic form. Examples were chosen from the regional language and vocabulary, which helped the students in identifying the concepts. The availability of the content in a systematic form helped the students in describing the definition logically. With the help of pictures and other equipments the students could frame their own examples and concepts. After analyzing the achievement score statistically, it was found that handbook reading improvised the social science knowledge in students.