MANAGEMENT OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Sunil Behari Mohanty
Management of teacher education is a difficult task because of the fact that there are large numbers of variables in teacher education programmes including variations in the purpose for which persons join teacher training courses of various levels. There are four types of teacher education institutions: (a) government managed, (b) examining body managed, (c) government aided and privately managed and (d) self-financed and privately managed. While certain States do not have any private teacher training institution, there are other States that have large numbers of self-financed private teacher training recognised institutions. Many States do not have examining bodies for pre-school teacher education.
GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS FOR TEACHER EDUCATION
Department of Elementary Education &
Literacy of the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of
India is the apex body that looks after policy for teacher education. Its
agencies include National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), National
Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and
At the State level, the apex body that looks after teacher education is the Government Department of Education. In certain States, it is looked after by the Department of School Education. A few States have independent Directorates for Teacher education. In a few others, the Directorate and SCERT function under one Director. The teacher training institutions offering programmes for elementary and pre-school teachers are in many states under the control of the Department of School Education, whereas the teacher training institutions offering degree courses are under the Department of Higher Education. In certain States all teacher education institutions are managed by the State government. In certain other States, majority of teacher training institutions are managed by private agencies under self-financed category. At the State levels, there are teacher training institutions being run by the Departments of Tribal Welfare, and other administrative departments. Creation of separate cadre for teacher educators has been an important issue to be solved in many states.
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING QUALITY
A few strategies for improving the status of management of teacher education are as follows:
Establishing Model Teacher Education Institutions by the Central Government in Each State
As part of the strategy to improve quality of teacher education many Institutes of Advanced Study in Education, Colleges of Teacher Education and District Institutes of Education are functioning in the country. It has been found that in a large number of cases, this is an example of wastage of funds. If the Central Government is genuinely interested in improving teacher quality, it may start its own teacher education institutions and discontinue with the present scheme. These institutions may need to have academic autonomy.
Making Teacher Training Institutions Non-Vacational
If the teacher training institutions are to carry out in-service programs, they might have to be non-vocational, similar to the practice followed in the Regional Institutions of Education of NCERT. In this case, the concerned employers have to give proportionate earned leave to their employees as applicable for the non teaching employees of the concerned State governments. When the students are not in the campus, the faculty members can organise seminars and conferences on different themes, undertake report writing of the work they have undertaken earlier and can undertake inservice education programmes for school teachers and other activities.
Encouragement for Formation of Associations of Teacher Training Institutions
National Policy on Education 1986 had suggested networking of teacher education institutions. This can be facilitated by promoting formation of associations of teacher education institutions for each of the types of programmes at different levels.
Encouragement for Teacher Education Complexes
At present, there are mainly three types of teacher education institutions catering to the needs of teachers of pre-primary, elementary and secondary stages. Linking of teacher education institutions of various stages can facilitate teacher educators to learn from each other. Teacher training institutions not offering degree level courses generally, have fewer materials on educational technology, psychological tests and books and journals than found in case of secondary teacher training institutions. Linkage of these institutions can ensure optimum utilisation of resources. Linkage may take care of inadequate amount of daily work found in case of posts such as physical education teacher, art teacher, craft teacher, etc. The head of the complex may be given certain financial support at least for organising complex faculty meetings, disseminating information brochures, etc. and for conducting seminars, workshops, etc. Selected institutions may need to be strengthened for the purpose.
Making Provision for Follow up Studies and Follow up Activities
Follow up studies indicate the extent to which a teacher training programme has been successful in terms of its application in the field situation. Every teacher training institution may need to carry out follow up studies not only to evaluate their programmes but also to realise the extent to which it has been able to make their product continue as school teacher. In the light of findings, the teacher training provider may modify its curriculum. Such follow up studies are also necessary for in-service education programs.
Establishment of Resource Centres for Teacher Education
Formation of National Resource Centre for Teacher Education and State Resource Centres for Teacher Education can boost the efforts to improve the quality of teacher education. These resource centres may carry out following activities:
Facilitating CPD of Teacher Educators
Teacher educators can be helped to become
aware of recent developments in training techniques, innovations in teacher
Facilitating Updating of Initial Training Courses and CPD Programmes for Teachers
The institutions that provide teacher
training may be made aware of developments that have been taking place from
time to time to cope with the developments in ICT and also developments in
school curriculum. They may be made aware of what their counterparts in
developed countries are doing in case of initial as well as continued teacher
training. This is necessary especially, at the present juncture, when a
significant number of persons having teacher training qualifications acquired
The resource centres may help experts involved in preparation of norms by providing them norms found in developed countries. Examining body wise analysis of scenario of teacher education courses and programmes in various States may help. Web sites of resource centres may provide an international scenario of teacher education courses and programmes and teacher licensing system, teacher evaluation system and accreditation procedures for teacher education courses and programmes in various developed countries and the data shall be updated periodically. There may be data in respect of comparative analysis of the situation prevailing in States. The resource centres may develop and make available an e-directory of the tools and tests for teacher education to facilitate their utilization. It should create and make available an e-directory of compatible quality learning resources (books and journals) for teacher education institutions and should make available computer based tests for admission into various programs of teacher education.
The portal of the national level resource centres may provide facilities for (i) On-line survey and data search - topic wise and author wise, (ii) Free text search, and (iii) project area search, (iv) A net work to encourage communication between teacher educators and teacher trainees and for providing a forum for exchange of ideas among teacher educators and other professionals, (v) Linkage with other agencies involved in promotion of school teaching and teacher education in India and abroad, etc. It may also provide indexes of topics in different books of a standard quality, web sites of different organisations and associations involved in school education and teacher education, journals on teacher education and school education, lists of recognised persons as principals of various levels of institutions and a list of teacher educators with their fields of specialisation.
Bringing All Types of Teacher Education Programmes to University Level
Education Commission 1964-66 (Art 4.10, P. 129) pointed out the necessity of bringing all teacher education courses to higher education level. It stated that:
“Teachers for the different stages of education or for special subjects are now trained in separate courses and in separate institutions. The training institutions for pre-primary and primary teachers have the status of lower secondary schools only, in terms of qualifications and remuneration of the staff or the scale of contingent expenditure. There is also a total separation between training institutions for secondary school teachers and those for primary and pre-primary teachers. An important reform, therefore, would be to raise the status of training institutions for pre-primary and primary teachers to a collegiate standard and to end the fragmentation of teacher education which results in weakness at each level and greatly reduces the effectiveness of the programme as a whole. ”
Even after four decades of this
recommendation, it is necessary that all teacher education programmes need to
be provided at the university level institutions. It is recommended that the
Principals of DIETs should be at par with the status of the Principal of a
Banning Utilisation of Faculty Member of Face to Face Mode to be Available for Distance Mode
The distance education programmes utilise not only the buildings, but also faculty members of teacher training institutions. This practice does not allow faculty members of face to face mode institutions utilise their holidays for preparation for training their own teacher trainees. Hence, faculty members of face to face mode teacher training institutions should not be utilised for distance mode programmes. Distance education programmes should involve their own personnel for the purpose. They can take help of retired persons.
Encouraging Establishment of Comprehensive Colleges of Education
Education Commission 1964-66 recommended establishment of comprehensive colleges of education. It said that:
“Colleges should be established wherever possible to prepare teachers for several stages of education and /or for a number of special fields. Some institutions of this type already exist and have shown good results. What is now needed is a planned attempt to develop more institutions of this type and to add sections for training primary and/or pre-primary teachers to training colleges that now prepare teachers for secondary schools only. ” (Art.4.12, P.130)
The establishment of comprehensive colleges may reduce the cost of teacher education.
Making Provision for Teacher Educators to act as Honorary Academic Supervisors of School Teachers
There are State Government institutions, where a faculty member teaches for less than three hours a week. This is the example of worst kind of wastage of human resources. If the teacher educators can be declared as honorary academic supervisors of school teachers indicating their areas, the heads of the teacher institution may engage faculty members in observation and giving feedback of school teaching or in preparation of teacher support materials. Faculty Members may observe lessons of school teachers and may finalise their findings after discussion with concerned teacher. Later, they may convey the findings to concerned regular supervisors and heads of schools. Carrying out evaluation of schools and giving feedback to school teachers may help in improving the teaching skills of the faculty members of initial teacher training institutions. This may strengthen existing supervisory mechanism existing for schools. This may help the faculty members having inadequate weekly work load get adequate amount of work. Concerned authorities in charge of supervision may bear the travel cost of the teacher educators from their institutions to schools and back.
Encouraging Formation of State Boards for Teacher Education
The Education Commission 1964-66 stated that “… each State Government should establish a State Board of Teacher education, which should work in collaboration with the State Institute of education,” (Art. 10.53, P.474) State Boards of teacher education may be instituted in each State. These may take charge of developing and conducting admission tests for admission into teacher education courses and can also develop State level standards for teacher education as well as for school teachers.
Carrying out Continuous Evaluation of Initial Teacher Training Curricula
Any curriculum needs to be evaluated at intervals. The renewal process should be involved in getting rid of the content and processes that have become in course of time obsolete. Course of study is only one aspect of the curriculum. Evaluation is a process of systematic and critical analysis leading to judgments and or recommendation for improving the curriculum. Curricular evaluation process generally involves all the stake holders such as teacher trainees, ex-teacher trainees, teacher educators, peers working in other types of teacher education programmes, school inspectors and supervisors, educational administrators and even members of community.
Increasing Stress on School Experience
School experience is the pivot of initial teacher
training programs. Duration of school teaching experience varies from nation to
nation and even from one examining body to another in a nation. Some systems
prescribe number of lessons. In
Improving Quality of School Support for Teacher Training
The special nature of job of the teachers of the schools utilised for practical work of teacher trainees may require special training. Such teachers may need to be more skilled than ordinary schoolteachers. The teacher trainees are generally slower than regular teachers in covering course. A number of teacher trainees may even teach wrong content. Hence, the teachers of these schools need to be more effective than the teachers in other types of schools. There may be an official order, if necessary by State act, empowering the State Governments to attach a specified number of schools to the proposed teacher education institution. The remuneration amount may be fixed by each State Government. Besides the remuneration for concerned school teachers, every school to which teacher trainees are deputed may get an amount to be utilised by the concerned schools for purchase of books, educational journals and equipment.
Carrying out Continuous Evaluation of Teacher Education Institutions and Their Programmes
Evaluation process may be internal and
external. Internal evaluation generally precedes external evaluation. The findings of
internal evaluation can form the base for external evaluation.
teacher preparation programs are accountable to others, and must hold
themselves accountable for performance that is measured and evaluated
qualitatively across the board. Key measures of quality include the quality and
academic preparation of students recruited to the program; how these recruits
are doing as they move through general education after they come to the
University; how graduates impact the performance of their own PreK-12 students;
and how well support for new teacher graduates prevents or reduces teacher
Appropriate agencies in
advanced systems, teacher-training course is not considered adequate for
providing practical experience. “A number of studies show that new teachers’
careers can be influenced by their experiences in the early years of
professional practice. A supportive school and/or department appear to be the
strongest positive influence on career development.” (
Management of teacher education is a difficult task, especially at the present juncture where teacher education programmes are being delivered by a large number of unaided private teacher education institutions. These institutions are also not sure of their tenure, as in near future; possibility of huge unemployment of trained persons may result in drastic fall in enrolment figures. The surviving institutions can only be helped by appropriate authorities in improving quality of their management.
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Kirby, S. N. et al (2006)
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Kothari, D. S. (1966) Chairman) Report of the
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