Sumana Paul

Kh. Malemnganbi



As early as in 1906, the need for giving training to the teachers was felt in Manipur. During that time, the Department of Education organized a training course for teachers which was of 4 months duration for the improvement of the method of teaching.  Twenty primary school teachers attended the course.  This was the beginning of teacher education in Manipur.  Imparting training to secondary school teacher began in the year 1928, when one of the teachers of Johnstone High School, Imphal was deputed to undergo B.T. Training outside the state. This marked the beginning of training programme for secondary school teachers. After 1947, the State Government took a keen interest in teacher training programmes.  A humble beginning of training the primary and middle school teachers in Manipur was made in 1952-53 by starting Normal Institute at Imphal.  The Normal Training School was substituted by Basic Training Institute in 1956.  Since then, the Basic Training Institute (BTI) was giving training to elementary school teachers in the state.  By 1958-59, there were one Junior Basic Training Institute and one Hindi Training Institute in the State with 80 enrolments in Basic Training and 10 in Hindi Training Institute. Training of Secondary School teacher was done by opening a BT Section in the D.M College in 1959.  The B.T course was intended for graduate teacher and Certificate in Teaching (CT) course was for the undergraduate teachers.  The B.T section at D.M College was converted into full-fledged training college and named as P.G.T. (Post Graduate Training College) which was affiliated to Guwahati University on 15th September 1972. Subsequently in 17th January 1997 the P.G.T. College is converted as D.M.College of Teacher Education as a member College of Dhanamanjuri Group of Colleges which is affiliated to Manipur University. After the implementation of National Policy of Education 1986, District Institutes of Educational Training (DIET) has been established in every district of the state to provide pre-service and in-service training to primary school teachers.



Secondary Teacher Education programmes (B. Ed. Courses) are provided by 5 colleges of teacher education. The course pattern is as follows: Part A consists of core papers: I: Teacher in Emerging Indian Society; II:  Development of Learner and Teaching-Learning Process; III:  Development of Education in India; and IV:  Educational Technology and Management. Part B consists of Optional Papers V & VI, any two method subjects out of: English, Social Sciences, Mathematics, and Physical and Biological Science. Part C is Elective Group: Additional Specialization, Paper VIII: Any one special paper - Educational and Mental Measurement ; and Educational Management and Administration. Part D. consists of   Field Based Experience: Classroom Teaching and Practical Work



Elementary School Teacher Education is done in District Institute Education and Training (DIET). There are as many as 8 (eight) DIETs in Manipur.  These DIETs play a very important role in providing quality teacher’s education.  District Institute of Education and Training (DIETs) are under the control of SCERT. Primary Schools teacher working in the institutions in different districts of Manipur can join the in-service teacher training programmes conducted by DIETs.  The aim of DIET is to provide the latest methods of teaching and learning. Since information technology is included in the new syllabus and text books for class I-V have been introduced from the session in 2004-2005 and the teachers are to be oriented to acquaint them the knowledge of teaching new text books. The Course is divided into three major curricular areas. Foundation Course – 2 papers of 100 marks each -Education in Emerging India and Educational Psychology. Stage Relevant Specialization (6 papers of 100 marks each (I –V I) and 3 papers of 50 marks each (VII-IX) - Teacher Functions at the Elementary stages, Teaching of English; Mother Tongue (Manipuri) or Non-Formal Education; Mathematics;  Environmental Studies I (Social Studies); Environmental Studies II (Science); Health and Physical Education; Art Education; and Work Experience. (C) Practicum consists of  Practice of Teaching Skills (Micro-Teaching approach) – 40 marks; Internship in Teaching – 50 marks; Observation of lessons – 10 marks; and Final practice teaching of one lesson – 50 marks.

Some of the common problems faced by the DIETs are related to: Manpower, finance, non-availability of teacher educators. Many employees are under contract basis.  Another problem is non-payment of Salaries regularly to the employees of DIETs working on contract basis. There are 154 Block Resource Centres (RBCs), 156 Cluster Resources Centres (CRCs) functioning under the direct control of SCERT, SSA and DIETs respectively.



Pre-Primary Teacher Education programme in Manipur is at the initial stage.  The training centres run by the State Government and NGOs give on-job training courses to Anganwadi workers and helpers.  The Central Social Welfare Board also organizes Orientation courses at regular intervals for the benefit of Anganwadi helpers.  There are more than 7 (seven) pre-primary teacher training institute in Manipur which are under the control of private agency.  These institutions are developing day by day and contributing a lot in the field of pre-primary education.



Preparation of well equipped and qualified teachers is must for brighter future of Manipur. In the context of present society, peace is the most important objectives of the human beings. It is a must for all the developmental activities in any society. Thus it seems pertinent that peace education be incorporated in the teacher education curriculum to train the would be teachers to teach school students about peace. Again for promoting the principles of ‘Inclusive education’ special education should also be added in the curriculum of Teacher Education Programme. Moreover, in order to develop professionalism among teacher trainees the duration of B.Ed training programme may be enhanced to two academic sessions.