TEACHER EFFICACY IN DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT TYPES OF    SECONDARY SCHOOLS

 

Y. N. Sridhar

Hamid Reza Razavi

 

INTRODUCTION

Teacher is an integral component of the educational system. He is intimately connected with society, and is conditioned by the ethos and culture of the society in which he lives.. The constitutional goals, the directive principles of the state policy, the socio-economic problems, the growth of knowledge, the emerging expectations and the changes operating in education, etc. influences the teacher to a large extent in building up of his efficacy. To be able to discharge such a high responsibility, it is very necessary that the teacher must be conscious of his efficacy. His behavior should indicate his attempt to do his job properly and keep on improving his efficacy. His personality must reflect characteristics of good citizenship, so that s/he may transmit the same to the younger generation. Teacher efficacy is related to student achievement and teacher effectiveness. Teachers’ sense of “efficacy” is teachers’ judgments about their abilities to promote students’ learning. Because teachers’ sense of efficacy is a belief that affects teaching and learning, teacher educators, administrators, and policy makers are interested in the study of various dimensions of efficacy. In the present study teacher efficacy in different types of schools in Mysore is examined. In the present study, the relationship between teachers’ efficacy in two dimensions (PE and GTE) with different types of school management in Mysore district is examined. Specifically, gender, qualification, age, teacher experience and attentiveness influence teachers’ judgments about their own efficacy. Hence teachers’ efficacies with respect to these demographic variables in different types of secondary school were also examined.

 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. Do the Teacher Efficacy scores of the teachers are different with respect to type of school Mysore city?

2. Is there any significant difference in the Teacher Efficacy of secondary school teachers with respect to, gender, age, educational level, subject taught and teaching experience?

 

Sample

Out of a population of 81 secondary schools and 392 teachers in Mysore city (south), 61 secondary schools and 256 teachers responded to the questionnaire. The population consists of: Male teachers = 67(26.2%); female teachers= 189(73.8%). Number of teachers in type of schools: government teachers = 25(9.8%): private unaided teachers =62 (24.2%); private aided teachers= 71(27.7%); C.B.S.E (central Board of Secondary Education) teachers = 40(15.6%); Minority (Muslims school) teachers= 28(10.9%); Navodaya Vidyalayas Samiti (NVS) teachers = 30(11.7%).

 

Instruments

Two questionnaires are used in the present study. They are : Teacher Efficacy Scale questionnaire (TES) and Demographic variables inventory.  T E S   Questionnaire was designed by Woolfolk and Hoy (1990) to measure two dimensions of teacher efficacy. The instrument includes 12 statements to measure PE and 10 statements to measure GTE. Teachers were asked to rate the statements on a 6-point scale. The rating was scored on Likert-type scale. The scale ranges from 1 for “strongly disagree” to 6 for “strongly agree”. A neutral point was not provided, to force the teachers to give a specific response that reflected their extend agreement with each item. The reliability was measured by researcher using split half method. The obtained alpha coefficient of 0.95 for the personal efficacy and 0.63 for the general teaching efficacy, assures that instrument has adequate reliability. The validity of the instrument was got rated by experts by the researcher and was found to be an average of 9points on a 10 point rating scale. Teachers were explained about the procedure of marking on rating scale. The questionnaire was got back after half an hour time. Some of the teachers did not respond. The subjects were requested to clarify all their doubts in answering the items and to complete all the questions, in each scale.  Coded data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software. ANOVA and t-test was used to compare the teacher efficacy with types of school and demographic variables.

 

RESULTS

Question 1: Do the Teacher Efficacy scores of the teachers are different with respect to type of school Mysore city?  One way ANOVA result, showed a significant difference between groups in personal efficacy.    F (5,250) =5.258      P=0.05. The t-test scores exhibits a significant difference between Navodaya schools and government (4.20), unaided (4.84), aided (5.37) schools. There was no significant difference between Navodaya schools and Minority, C.B.S.E school.One way ANOVA results, showed no significant differences between of General Teaching Efficacy F (5,250) =2.093   P= .067 with types of school.

Question two: Is there any significant difference in teacher efficacy of secondary school teachers with respect to, gender, age, qualification level, teaching experience and subject taught? One way ANOVA analysis produced a non significant F scores in Personal Efficacy   for Age-F (3,252) =.321,  P= .810, Gender- F (1,254) =2.34    P=0.13.    Qualification- F (2,253) =.78 P= .46 Teacher experience- F (2,253) =.73   P= .98, subject taught- F (1,254) =.09   P=0.77 . The analysis exhibit higher mean scores of personal efficacy, for Below 30 years of age  (mean=49.89) and above 51years of age  (mean=49.82), than teacher with 31-40 years (Mean=48.24) and 41-50 years (Mean=47.04).The data  exhibit higher mean score of personal efficacy in female (49.54) teachers than in male (45.58) teachers. The analysis exhibits higher mean score of personal efficacy of teachers with master degree (mean=49.52) than teacher with bachelor degree (Mean=47.42).The analysis exhibits higher mean score of personal efficacy of teachers with experience 21 years and above (mean=50.94) than teacher with experience 11-20 years (Mean=47.17) and Below 10 year (Mean=48.64).The analysis exhibit higher mean score of personal efficacy in science teachers (48.23) than in arts teachers (48.91). One way ANOVA analysis produced a non significant F scores in General Teaching Efficacy for Age- F (3,252) =1.15 ,  P= .33, Gender- F (1,254) =0.94    P=0.33,    Qualification Level- F (2,253) =0.62 P= 0.46. Teacher experience- F (2,253) =.14   P= .87, Subject taught- F (1,254) =0.44   P=0.51. The analysis  exhibits higher mean scores of general teaching efficacy, for 41-50 years of age  (mean=37.48) and above 51years of age  (mean=36.34), than teacher with below 31 years (Mean=35.12) and 31-40 years (Mean=35.85).The analysis exhibits higher mean score of GTE in female (36.39) teachers than in male (35.27) teachers. Analysis exhibits higher mean score of GTE of teachers with bachelor degree (mean=36.15) than teacher with master degree (Mean=35.97).The analysis exhibits higher mean score of GTE of teachers with experience Below 10year (mean=36.35) than teacher with experience 11-20 years (Mean=36.08) and 21 years and above (Mean=35.61).The analysis exhibits higher mean score of GTE in science teachers (36.50) than in arts teachers (35.82).

 

DISCUSSIONS

Significant relationship exists between personal efficacy and types of school. Navodaya teachers’ scores on personal efficacy were found higher then teachers of other schools. It seems likely that these teachers are satisfied with their job and posses required classroom management skills to teach effectively. On the other hand student achievement can also influence personal efficacy. Admissions to Navodaya schools are done by a common entrance examination. This ensures admission of quality students. Most of the students of Navodaya schools are talented than the other school students. Hence higher PE in both teachers and students can be expected. However there was no significant difference between GTE and types of schools. This indicates that GTE is independent of type of secondary schools. Mean score of GTE of CBSE School teachers are found to be higher than other type of schools. The CBSE syllabus is found to be of higher standard compared with the syllabus followed in all other types of schools. Due to this depth of knowledge in the subjects of teachers in CBSE schools should be naturally higher than that in teachers of other types of schools. Hence the GTE of CBSE teachers are found to be more. Very few insignificant reports are available with regard to TE and types of schools. Teachers below 30 years and above 51 years of age, teachers with Masters’ degree, and teachers with experience more than 21 years, teachers teaching science and female teachers are found to have higher Personal Efficacy and also higher General Teaching Efficacy than their counterparts in respective groups.

 

CONCLUSION

Navodaya teachers’ PE is better than that of other type of schools. They are satisfied with their job and posses required classroom management skills to teach effectively. Definition of general teaching efficacy tends to focus on the ability of teachers to help or reach students beyond the external factors that influence the learning process. Hence type of school causes no influence on GTE. Depth of knowledge of teachers in CBSE schools is found to be higher than that in teachers of other types of schools. Hence the GTE of CBSE teachers are found to be more. Teacher efficacy studies connected with various types of schools are found in insignificant number and hence a detailed study of this area is very much essential. Female teachers are better in both personal efficacy and teaching efficacy than male teacher. Females are generally more inclined to attribute success to what they had done in the classroom. The research on the relationship between years of experience, educational level and Teacher Efficacy is inconclusive since we get varied results and needs further study.