TEACHER EDUCATION IN RAJASTHAN
Archaeological and historical
evidence shows a continuous human habitation of the area dating back 100,000
years. The present form of Rajasthan came into being after the
ELEMENTARY TEACHER EDUCATION :
The elementary teacher education programme offers a two-year teacher education course called BSTC (Basic School Teaching Certificate) which DIETs and STC schools conduct under the Department of Elementary School Education. The curriculum of the STC course is designed and approved by the Department of Elementary Teacher Education in SIERT. The Department of Elementary Education of the State government under Director of Elementary Education made admissions to the BSTC course on merit basis till 2007-2008.But this year (2008-2009) admissions will be made through a pre - test to be conducted by a State university.. All the state approved and prescribed norms for admissions and reservations are followed by the STC institutes in the state. Monitoring and supervision of these institutions is done by the Department of Education through SIERT. The categories of institutes are: Govt. - 42 (12 + 30 DIETs); Private and Self financed -136; and Pvt. NTT -22; Total - 200.
Teacher educators for the course have post graduate degree in the relevant school subjects along with M.Ed. Many of them have done STC themselves and have taught in elementary school for at least five years. AS per the new norms of the NCTE (January 2008), even teachers with MA and B.Ed are being recruited as school lecturers in STC institutes. The faculty members are called school- lecturers and are given salary as per the school lecturer- grade. Their basic pay presently is Rs.6500. The fee charged for the course is prescribed by the state govt and it is Rs.11, 250/- at present. There is no payment seat for the course.
The details of STC course are as follows:
Theory Papers - First Year: Principles of Education and Education in Modern India.; Educational Psychology; School Management and Organization; Education Technology; Teaching of Mother Tongue; Teaching of English; Teaching of Third Language; Teaching of Mathematics; Teaching of Environmental (Social, Physical & Biological) Studies; Teaching of Physical and Health Education; Teaching of Art Education.
Theory Paper - Second Year: School Management & Educational Innovation; Teaching of Mother Tongue; Teaching of English; Teaching of Maths; Teaching of Social Science;
Teaching of Science; and Teaching of Work Experience.
Practice of Teaching; Each year 600 periods are meant for teaching practice and school experience which include Teaching Practice in (i) Basic Skills teaching (ii) Multi-grade Teaching, Observation of lessons, Block Teaching, Scouting Camp, and Teaching Learning Material Preparation.
Secondary Teacher Education:
Teacher education colleges
affiliated to respective universities conduct Secondary Teacher Education
Programme. Admissions to the B.Ed. programme are made on the basis of a state
level admission test called Pre Teacher Education Test (PTET) conducted by a
state university under the directions of the state government. In the year 2007-2008, Maharshi Dayanand Sarswati (MDS) University,
The examining bodies for secondary
teacher education courses are 6 State Universities, one State Open University and
four institutions deemed to be universities.
Secondary teacher education in Rajasthan is controlled by the state Department of Secondary Education, the State Universities to which these B.Ed. colleges are affiliated and by the central apex bodies like the UGC and the NCTE. The B.Ed. colleges in the state follow the curriculum designed and approved by the state universities concerned. Different universities follow different B.Ed. and M.Ed. syllabi. However, since 2002, these universities have been asked by the Chancellor/ Governor to follow a common syllabus prepared by a state university in consultation with all the universities concerned.
The faculty qualifications till December 2007 were PG along with M.Ed .As per the new norms of the NCTE (January 2008), even teachers with MA/ M.Com /M.Sc. and B.Ed are being recruited as lecturers in B.Ed colleges.
Unlike the other states in the
country, all the B.Ed. Colleges (Secondary Teacher Education Institutes in the
State) including government, non-government and aided B.Ed. colleges come under
the Director of Secondary Education, not under the Director of Higher
Education, in Rajasthan. The teaching staff members employed in these colleges
do not get UGC Pay Scale as per the norms of UGC and NCTE. The staff members
employed in the university department of education get UGC pay scale. No in- service training programmes are
conducted for the faculty of these colleges as there is no
THE B.ED COURSE
There are two parts of the programme consisting of Theory and Practice components. The details are as given below.
(A)Theory Papers: Four Compulsory papers: I Education in the Emerging Indian Society;II Development of learner and learning process;.III Educational System in India and school organization; and .IV Essentials of Educational Technology and Classroom Management and Teaching Subjects: Paper -V&VI (Two optional papers): Graduates in Arts, Science, and Commerce Streams are required to offer any two teaching subjects studied at Graduate level at least for two years for paper V and VI out of the following:
Teaching of Hindi ; English; Sanskrit/Urdu/Rajasthani; Mathematics; General Science; Social Science; Art Education; Commerce, etc.
Additional Optional Specialization papers (Paper VII): A candidate may opt anyone of the following papers : Educational and vocational guidance; Basic Education; Non-formal Education;
Physical Education; School Library organization; Audio-visual Education; Measurement and Evaluation; Moral Education; Education of the handicapped; Primary Education; Yoga Education; Population Education; Educational Psychology; Educational Television; Programmed Learning; Environmental Education; and Computer Literacy & Education Application.
Qualifying Compulsory paper :( Paper-VIII ) Computer Literacy and Educational Applications (CLEA)
Teaching Practice Programme:
Micro Teaching in 5 skills / EPS (Experiencing Pedagogical Skills) including Communication skills; 30 Macro Lessons
Internship : Minimum 3 lessons
along with lesson plans per day for two weeks.; Group feedback and sharing of
class room experiences; Understanding school system and nearly community; Eco-Education
camp (Open Air Session) - A five day camp (An experience in Environmental
Studies, Value education and working with community; Participation in and organization of co-curricular
activities (Literary, Cultural and Games) and Extension lectures. Assessment Procedure:For a pass in Theory a candidate
is required to obtain at least - (a) 30% marks in each theory paper the (b) 36%
marks in the aggregate of all the theory papers.
(ii) For a pass in Practice of Teaching a candidate is required to pass separately in the Internal & External Examinations and obtain at least 40 marks in each. Some universities also offer certificate, diploma and degree courses in Physical Education called C.P.Ed., B.P.Ed. and M.P.Ed.
Besides these colleges and
institutions, there is a Regional Institute of Education (RIE) of NCERT, which
conducts four year integrated B. Sc. B.Ed. course and one year M.Ed. programme
largely there is some uniformity in teacher education programmes .However, some universities exercise their power o f academic freedom and autonomy and thus have introduced special activities in their programmes.
Out of the eleven universities, ten universities (except Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University Kota) offer M.Ed programme in Education as per the norms of the NCTE and the universities concerned. There are 17 institutions:Central Govt.(NCERT) -1; State Govt.-2. University Dept. -2; Self- financed – 9; and Private and aided -3. The candidates must have, after graduation, passed the B.Ed. /B.T. or L.T. examination degree from any recognized University as per norms laid down by the NCTE or any other examination accepted as equivalent by the University with 50% marks in Theory & Practical Examinations separately. There is a centralized scheme in force for the admissions of the M.Ed candidates. The fee for the M.Ed course is 22,400/- as per the state government norms.
The M.Ed.programme consists of
theory papers, field based surveys and a dissertation. Part I : Compulsory
Papers (Foundation Papers); I: Philosophical and Sociological Foundation of
Education (100 Marks);II: Psychological foundations of Education and
Educational Technology (100 Marks);III: Methodology of Educational Research and
Data analysis (100 Marks);and IV: Essentials of Teacher Education and
Comparative Education (100 Marks). In these papers candidates are evaluated by
internal and external examiners. Each paper consists of 'sessional' work which carries
Part II : Areas of specialization (Optional Paper) :Each specialization area has two papers of 100 marks each. Out of the following a candidate has to opt for one specialization paper: Guidance and Counseling; Teacher Education; Educational Measurement and Evaluation; Curriculum Development; and Management, Planning and Financing of Education.
Part III : Field based Experiences (Survey):They are related
to supervision and evaluation of practice-teaching and other aspects of school experiences
of B.Ed. programmes. This part carries 50 marks which is internally evaluated
by a team of members constituted by the principal within the institution.
Part IV : A Dissertation: Dissertation is compulsory for candidates pursuing the M.Ed. Course. It carries 150 marks.
DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME
As part of distance education
programme, VM Open University,
INSTITUTES OF ADVANCED STYDY IN EDUCATION & COLLEGES OF TEACHER EDUCATION
As part of qualitative improvement in teacher education programme under NPE 1986, MHRD upgraded 4 colleges of the state to IASEs and 8 colleges to CTEs. Out of the four IASEs, two were government IASEs and the remaining two were non-government IASEs till 2004. The state government changed the status of two privately managed IASEs to CTEs. Therefore, there are two IASEs and ten CTEs in the state at present. In addition to pre-service programme, these IASEs and CTEs also conduct theme- based and content -based in-service programmes for secondary school teachers, headmasters, principals etc. with the financial support under the IASEs, CTEs scheme of the MHRD.
CHALLENGES AND SUGGESTIONS
Over the past couple of years there has been a mushroom growth of secondary teacher education institutions in the state, which is not based on any empirical evidence for the need for such teachers’ training schools (STCs) and colleges in such a big way. Teacher education in the state especially secondary teacher education is blocked by some impediments to quality secondary teacher education such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of qualified faculty and need for empowerment of newly recruited teacher educators, etc. The agencies concerned must take immediate effective measures to prevent rapid deterioration in teacher education.