DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF ATTITUDE TOWARDS USING NEW TECHNOLOGY SCALE (ATUNTS)
Technology tools have become a
part and parcel of our life. The introduction of technology to the field of
education has completely changed the conventional way of teaching and learning
by modifying and making the enormous use of technology in the field of
education. In order to make the best use of our resources, it is essential that
all persons engaged in the educational enterprise and especially the teacher
should understand adequately the dynamics and mechanism of educational
technology and provide the best possible education to the students. Also the
favourable attitude of teachers’ towards using new technology in teaching will
certainly make them use in appropriate situations in teaching and thus
measuring of teachers’ attitude towards using new technology in teaching is
very much needed. As there is no
suitable tool available to measure this, the investigators decided to construct
and standardize a scale to measure the teachers’ attitude towards using new
technology in teaching. One among the studies carried out on attitude towards
using new technology for the teachers was done by Serhan
Normative survey method was employed and the data have been collected from the sample of as many as 100 higher secondary school teachers of Ernakulam district, Kerala, using random sampling technique for conducting pilot study.
As there is not suitable scale available to study the teachers’ attitude towards using new technology in teaching, the investigators have decided to construct and standardize a scale to measure the teachers’ attitude towards using new technology in teaching. It is of Likert type Scale having as many as 40 statements; out of which 22 were favourably worded and remaining 18 of them were unfavourably worded. The statements were categorized with the experts’ opinion under the dimensions namely,
Hard ware - Material use in the class room
- Economy of hardware
- Impact of hardware
Soft ware – Soft ware programme
- Economy of software programme
- Impact of software programme
Each statement is set against a five point scale of ‘Strongly Agree’ , ‘Agree’, ‘Undecided’, ‘Disagree’ and ‘Strongly disagree’ and weights of 5,4,3,2 and 1 are given in that order for the favourable statements and the scoring is reversed for the unfavourable statements. The scores in this scale range from 40 to 200 in the direction of the most unfavourable to the most favourable.
The individual attitude scores for all the 100 teachers were found out and they were arranged from the highest score to the lowest. Then 25% of the subjects with the highest total scores and 25% of the subjects with the lowest total scores were sorted out for the purpose of item selection. The next step in the construction and standardization of an attitude scale is to find out the ‘t’ value of each statement which forms the basis for item selection. As many as 30 statements having the ‘t’ values equal to or greater than 1.75 were chosen in order to form the final scale. This has as many as 13 favourable and 17 unfavourable statements. An individual score is the sum of the scores of the 30 items. Higher score indicates the favourable attitude towards using new technology in teaching.
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
Attitude towards using new technology scale has construct validity as items were selected having the ‘t’ values equal to or more than 1.75 (Edwards, 1975). Its intrinsic validity was found to be 0.98. The reliability of this scale by split-half technique (Consistency) was found to be 0.95. Norms have been established for the attitude towards using new technology scale.
Thus the attitude towards using new technology scale has been developed and standardized by the investigators which can be used to measure the teachers’ attitude towards using new technology in teaching, which in turn may be helpful for the Government to decide and to plan the in-service training and workshops for the teachers in using new technological instruments in teaching.
Serham. D. (2007) School principles attitude towards the use of technology: United Arab Emirates Technology Workshop, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology .6, 1-5
Edwards, L. A. (1975) Techniques
of Attitude Scale Construction. Vakils Feffer and Simons (P) Ltd.,