STATUS OF TEACHER EDUCATION
One of the three new born states of Indian Union,
Uttarakhand (born on 09 November, 2000) a hilly state was formally a part of
Uttar Pradesh. Its’ population is 84, 89,349 (Census 2001) and total literacy
rate is 72.29% whereas male literacy is 84.01% and female literacy is 60.26%.
The number of different level schools (Government aided) are:
No. of Primary Schools 13,795
No. of Junior High Schools 3,487
No. of High Schools 686
No. of Intermediate Schools 907
No. of special schools for handicapped 13
Besides these government aided schools, there are many
public schools with an international reputation.
STATUS OF SECONDARY TEACHER
Three universities of the state two government and one
private run education departments conducting secondary teacher education
programme. The two state universities have M.Ed. programme too. Both state
universities namely HNBG University and Kumaon
University were established in 1973 in
Garhwal and Kumaon regions with three campuses for Garhwal
University at Tehri, Srinagar
and Pauri and with two campuses for Kumaon
University at Nainital
and Almora. H.N.B.
has 40 self financed B.Ed. Colleges. The number of self-financed B.Ed. colleges
in Kumaon University
is colleges is 11. The Kumaon University
has established education faculty at Almora Campus whereas in the HNB Garhwal University education faculty is spread over two
campuses at Tehri and Srinagar
with a distance of 110 kms between them. Himgiri Nabh Univerity branch of Talim
Research Foundation, Ahmadabad
is the third university running B.Ed. programme established in 2003 at
Dehradun. The H.N.B.
plans to conduct B.Ed. self financed programme at its third campus at Pauri in
the session 2008-09 charging a fee Rs.40, 000.00. Of late, the state government
initiated a programme of running B.Ed. self financed programme in the current
session in some 20 government colleges controlled by it in order to thwart the
excesses committed by self financed private institutions on the students and
teachers. The fee structure in the self financed colleges decided by the state
government is Rs.40, 000.00 for government/state quota i.e. 50% of the total
seats, Rs.50, 000.00 for self financed institution quota i.e. rest of the seats
of which 15% sets will be N.R.I. seats with a fee of Rs.60, 000.00 for each
seat. Teachers appointed under self-financed scheme in government B.Ed. college
will be paid Rs.20, 000.00 each while the principal or head of the department
will be drawing Rs.30, 000.00 fixed per month. The regular colleges of B.Ed.
government and private have nominal fee structure and therefore, attract
applicants securing higher merit in the test. All the three universities follow
own entrance test. The state universities follow U.G.C. norms in the selection
of teachers. The B.Ed. colleges being run under self-financed scheme recruit
teachers as per the N.C.T.E. norms. It is obvious that the universities have
highly qualified and experienced faculty being paid in accordance with U.G.C.
guidelines. Well-trained teachers turnout from these universities most of whom
get absorbed in government and private sectors. The teacher student ratio in
these departments is 1:10 (now 1:15), but a unit of 100 seats is allotted to
each institution. Each extra unit granted to an institution increases the
number of B.Ed. students by a hundred. The overall intake in all these
institutions viz. university departments, government colleges, private
affiliated colleges and self financed institutions was about 6425 (825 in
regular colleges and departments) and 5700 in self financed institutions
(including 100 seats of Himgri Nab University) in session 2007-08. The number
will go up to 8425 in the current session 2008-09. This number is inclusive of
the proposed 18 B.Ed department in colleges and one university self financed
department. The B.Ed. syllabus prescribed by the universities consists of the
following two parts: A) Theory - 600 Marks & B) Practical Teaching - 200
Marks.The theory papers are (I) Teacher in Emerging Indian Society; (II)
Development of Learner and Teaching
Learning Process; (III) Development of Educational Systems in India;
(IV) Essentials of Educational Technology and Management; (V) School Teaching
Subject – I; and (VI) School Teaching
Subject – II. These six papers are
compulsory and each carries 100 marks. The paper II allots 80 marks for the
written examination, 10 marks each assigned for internal assessment and for
educational psychology practical, which include psychology tests and
experiments. In case of each of the remaining five papers, 10 marks are
assigned for internal assessment whereas 90 marks are assigned for final
written examination of three hours at the end of the academic session. The
evaluation of these papers is internal as well as external. In case of the 7th
paper, which is elective one , any one
of the following courses would be chosen (i) Library science (ii) Physical
education (iii) Environment education (iv) Guidance and counseling, (v)
Population education, (vi) Elementary education (vii) Alternative education,
(viii) Educational administration management, (ix) Education and mental
measurement (x) Teaching of values. Each paper carries 100 marks. Practical or
skill in teaching is also evaluated both internally and externally. The
external examination is of 150 marks and 50 marks are meant for sessional
works, which is distributed as (a) Hand
work (b) Scouting and guiding (c) First aid (d) Co-curricular activities (e)
Physical education. Minimum pass percentage in each paper in theory is 30% but
in aggregate it is 36%. Division and marks in theory, in skill in teaching and
in sessional works are calculated and shown separately in the marks card.
INGOU (Indra Gandhi National Open University) also
offers B.Ed. course through distance mode. The INGOU regional office is located
at Dehradun. The total number of the INGOU study centers in the state are 08,
out of which 05 centres are in Garhwal region (Dehradun, Rishikesh, Srinagar,
Kotdwara and Gopeshwar) and three other in Kumaon region (Pithoragarh, Almora
and Haldwani). The INGOU organizes an entrance test for B.Ed. course in June or
July of every year. INGOU B.Ed. course is meant for the untrained teachers with
two years teaching experience and who are working in primary schools as teacher
or as Shiksha Mitra and Shiksha Bandhu in remote areas of the state. The
duration of the IGNOU B.Ed course is two years. One unit of B.Ed student
comprises of 100 students who are given a contact programme of 13 days in the
month of June every year. The main objective of the programme is to cover the
backlog of a large number of untrained teachers working in primary and
elementary schools of the state.
STATUS OF PRIMARY TEACHER
State Council for Educational Research and Training
(SCERT) was established in the state at Narendra Nagar a town of Tehri district in 2001.
The SCERT, besides managing the teacher education conducted at 10 DIETs and
three mini DIETs organizes from time to time short and medium term courses and
training for teachers of primary education. The mini DIETs are run in the three
districts of Rudraprayag, Champawat and Bageshwar where the number of teachers
is less than 2000. The DIETs have been set-up to train field inspecting staff
as well as teacher educator at the basic or primary level. The DIETs were
set-up to strive for bringing excellence in the training of teachers and
providing academic support and educational leadership for academic improvement
through efficient in-service and pre-service teacher training conduction of
education studies, surveys, development of modules in different subjects and
development and transaction of teacher education curriculum suiting to
children’s and local needs. The DIETs also organize special training course
namely special B.T.C. or Visistha B.T.C. for those teachers who possess a B.Ed.
degree but are working in primary or Basic Schools. The course duration is one
year which is divided into two parts. The teacher trainees teach in schools and
complete 40 lessons and other curricular activities under the supervision of
Head of the School in the first six months. The teachers are required to
complete their training in DIETs in the second six months. The teacher trainee
gets a fixed salary Rs.8000.00 per month during the training period. Successful
completion of training entitles them to full scale of pay and permanent teacher
status at primary level. The State has there are 4 N.T.T. (Nursery Teachers
Training) centers running and preparing teachers for nursery schools or K.G.
sections of public schools.
The District institute of Education
and training run B.T.C. regular and special (Vishistha B.T.C) B.T.C. Courses. In case of B.T.C. Regular, selection is made through entrance test by the
state Education Department Graduates is eligible for training. Training tenure
is 2 years out of which, 45 days are set or teaching practice and the rest for
theory teaching. Age limit for females is 19-32 years; for males is19-27 years and male and female ratio is 50:50.
In case of Visistha B.T.C.
(Special B.T.C), candidates
already having B.Ed., L.T., C. P. Ed. and B. P. Ed., are chosen year wise on
the basic of the year of training .Training
tenure is One year – Six months for theory and six months for teaching practice.
Age limit is 19-40 year for both male and
female candidates and male and female ratio is 70:30 or whatever is decided for
female reservation. On the completion of B.T.C. training the trainees become
eligible for appointment as a teacher in primary or elementary schools within
the state. Since the year 1999 no entrance test has been organized by the
state. So presently no regular B.T.C program of any sort has been taken up by
the DIETs.The B.T.C. syllabus prescribed by the Education Department of the
state consists of the following there parts: Part I : Theory papers. Total marks 325; Part II: Practice Teaching –Total marks 300; and Part III:
Evaluation of Project work, curricular activities and activities related with
each paper – 500 marks. The practical teaching is of 300 marks. The skill in
teaching is also evaluated by the head master of the school where the practice
teaching in doing besides the teacher educators from DIETs. The trainees have
to prepare a total number of 50 lesson plans in all the categories of teaching.
The syllabus for B.T.C. program includes many activities and project works
carrying a total number of 500 marks. The head master’s report, school records
and criticism books are also evaluated for the final assessment of the
trainees. The projects work of the trainees is evaluated by the Curriculum
Development and Evaluation Department of the DIETs. The DIETs have highly
qualified and experienced teaching staff. Most of them possess a post
graduation, M.Ed. and Ph.D. degrees. The teacher educators are appointed in the
scale of pay of Rs. 6500-200-10500 in accordance with state Government’s
NURSERY TEACHERS TRAINING
The course includes 5
compulsory theory papers related with early childhood and is of 100 marks each.
Practice teaching requires minimum 25 lesson plans. Teaching practical
examination has 200 marks. Division and marks in theory, in teaching skill and
in sessional work and calculated and shown separately in the marks card.
Some suggestions for improvement in quality of teacher
education in the state are given below:
1. Professional preparation of teacher educators and
trainee teachers need to be made more relevant and effective.
2. For admission to M.Ed. degree of a university
experience in teaching need to be considered as already been recommended by the
Higher Education Commission and the Education Commission.
3. M. Phil degree course should be started for
brininging excellence in the field of teacher education.
4. The government and university should develop some
procedure of regular monitoring of the faculty positions in the self-financed
and other regular institutions offering B.Ed. courses. So that the required
numbers of eligible teachers is maintained by the institutions. It is a common
acknowledge that students are fleeced by the self financed B.Ed. institution.
It is urgently required to devise some ways to curb this menace.
5. B.Ed. being run in colleges and universities is
maintained as one of the many subjects taught by them. The constraints of time,
space and freedom required to run the course as per N.C.T.E. norms in these
conditions compel the teacher training departments to adjust their programme
with the time table, environment of and space provided by the institution
leading to the production of half-backed teachers. B.Ed. training programmes in
regular colleges need to be run as an independent course that the department
and not other extraneous factors be held responsible for the quality of their